1. Digital Identity : The ability to build a wholesome online and offline identity

Physical Identity & Digital Identity

  • Digital identity is essentially any personal data existing online that can be traced back to the real you:
    • “Profile” traces corresponding to what I say about myself (who I am); 
    • “Browsing” traces showing which sites I visit, comment on or buy from (how I behave); 
    • And finally, written or declarative traces – what I publish on my blog, for example – which directly reflect my ideas and opinions (what I think).
  • More precisely, digital identity is the collection of writings, audio/video content, forum messages, sign-in details, etc. that we leave behind us, consciously or unconsciously, as we browse the network.

Internet & Equity

  • Netiquette, defined as showing courtesy and respect to other internet users, just as you would in real life; exists to help people communicate more effectively while online, and to avoid unnecessary misunderstandings and potential conflicts. 
  • Without a sound understanding of netiquette, you run the risk of displaying abusive behavior without even being aware of it.

Basic Netiquette Rules

  • Do unto others as you would have others do unto you. Remember, your written words are read by real people, all deserving of respectful communication. Before you press “send” or “submit,” ask yourself, “Would I be okay with this if someone else had written it?”
    • Apply the same standards online as we do in public. 
    • Use Respectful Language.
    • Acknowledge cultural differences and respect other’s views.
    • Fact check before reposting.
    • Respect people’s privacy.
    • etc.
2. Digital Use : The ability to use technology in a balanced, healthy, and civic way

Health risks of excessive screen time

  • While there’s no current consensus on how much screen time is too much for adults, there are a few things you can do to mitigate some of the effects:
    • Physical strain to your eyes and body.
    • Sleep deprivation.
    • Susceptibility to chronic health conditions.
    • Loss of cognitive ability.
    • Impaired socializing skills
    • Weakened emotional judgement
    • Lower self-esteem

Multitasking and Productivity

  • Many people think that multitasking is a good habit and that it can save time and energy when they perform different tasks at once. But this was a thing in the past as more and more studies reveal the negative effects of multitasking:
    • Reduces attention span and affects learning
    • Reduces focus and concentration.
    • Hamper’s creativity and innovation.
    • Increases stress and burnout.
    • Reduces productivity
  • Because multitasking decreases your brain’s efficiency and mental performance, your productivity level also declines! Doing two tasks at once has been found to reduce productivity by up to 40%. To avoid the negative effects of multitasking:
    • Limit the task to two at any given time and focus/spend at least 20 minutes before switching to another task. (20-20-20 rule: after 20 minutes look at 20 feet distance for 20 seconds)
    • Instead of doing a task throughout the day, set aside time to do it all at once.
    • Create a to-do-list.
    • Etc.
  • To boost your productivity and achieve peak brain performance: go easy on yourself, concentrate on one task at a time and give yourself a break. Your brain will thank you for it.

Technology & Work-life Balance

  • A work-life balance is a balancing act which requires you to get work completed without it taking over the time you’d spend with family and friends. You can’t let work take up so much of your time that you end up ceding hobbies and other interests or ignore your own physical and mental needs.
  • Technology in and of itself is neither good nor bad. How we use it can determine whether it can help or hinder work-life balance. We live in a digital world, where it’s easier than ever to communicate beyond the office walls.
    • Work life imbalance 
    • Makes us unhappy.
    • Decreases productivity.
    • Increases burnouts.
    • Affects relationships.Many of us do not consider the fact that the email culture within businesses and the way in which we use technology can cause overwhelming frustrations, that can contribute to work-life imbalance.
  • Tips for a Healthier Work-life Balance
    • Organize your day; Prioritize your daily tasks, but don’t get so absorbed in one that you run out of time for others.
    • Plan breaks during your day; walking away from your desk or office helps clear your head.
    • Don’t bring work on your vacation; If you absolutely must bring some work, limit the amount.
    • Set time aside each day for yourself; one or two hours where no one can bother you.​​
3. Digital Safety : The ability to understand, mitigate, and manage various cyber-risks through safe, responsible, and ethical use of technology

Behavioral cyber risks: Cyberbullying

  • Cyberbullying is bullying with the use of digital technologies. It can take place on social media, messaging platforms, gaming platforms and cell phones; It is repeated behavior, aimed at scaring, angering or shaming those who are targeted. Examples include:

    • Spreading lies/rumors/gossip on social media.
    • Posting hurtful things about someone on social media
    • Sending hurtful messages or threats on messaging platforms (Instagram, messenger, snapchat, etc.)
    • Impersonating someone and sending mean messages to others on their behalf.

Effects of Cyberbullying

  • When bullying happens online it can feel as if you’re being attacked everywhere, even inside your own home. It can seem like there’s no escape. The effects can last a long time and affect a person in many ways:
    • Mentally — feeling upset, embarrassed, stupid, even angry 
    • Emotionally — feeling ashamed or losing interest in the things you love
    • Physically — tired (loss of sleep), or experiencing symptoms like stomach aches and headaches 
  • Anyone can become a victim of cyberbullying, and the feeling of being laughed at or harassed by others, can prevent people from speaking up or trying to deal with the problem. In extreme cases, cyberbullying can even lead to people taking their own lives. 

Behavioral cyber risks: Cyberstalking

  • Cyberstalking can take many different forms, but in the broadest sense, it is stalking or harassment that takes place via online channels such as social media, forums or email. It is typically planned and sustained over a period.
    • Accessing your email or social media accounts to find your personal information, track your movements, read your emails and messages, or change your passwords to lock you out of your accounts.
    • Impersonation of you being used to stalk others, positioning you as the guilty party
    • Monitoring your movements using GPS technologies that are built into the operating systems of phones, tracking apps or spyware.
    • Physically tracking you, following you or watching you.

Ways to avoid behavioral cyber risks

  • Review all your privacy and security setting. For example, turning off location tagging when you post, showing your profile only to friends, and accepting friend request of people you actually know.
  • Regularly change your e-mail and passwords for key online accounts and keep them safe.
  • Ensure that your computer and mobile devices have updated antispyware software installed and turned on.
  • Limit the personal and financial information you share on or offline.

Online Propaganda

  • Propaganda has been around almost since the beginning of time with the internet being the new latest means of spreading the content around.
  • There will always be people that can spread “fake news” or information that can persuade them to follow a certain political or religious standpoint. 
  • The usage of different media in a separate context can convince people of the actual intention of the media.

Think twice while posting  personal information, sharing feelings and desires, publishing family photos and more 

Digital Empathy

  • Individuals need to understand how their online interactions might affect others’ feelings and recognize how others may be influenced by their online interactions.
4. Digital Security : The ability to detect, avoid, and manage different levels of threats to protect data, devices, networks and systems
  • A hacker attacks roughly every minute
  • 300,000 new pieces of malware are developed daily
  •  95% of cybersecurity breaches are caused by human error

Some Ways People Get Hacked

  • Using weak passwords / using the same password
  • Clicking on ads on sketchy websites
  • Plugging random USB drives they find into their computers
  • Using free public Wi-Fi
  • Downloading and using cracked/pirated software
  • Watching free movies on illegal sites
  • Posting too much information online

Protect Yourself

  • Use different passwords for each account
  • Enable multi-factor authentication
  • Don’t use public “free” Wi-Fi hotspots
  • Don’t download and run software from untrusted sources
  • Don’t click links you’re unsure of
  • Keep your anti-malware up to date
  • Be mindful and observant
  • Keep up to date with tech news and be notified of any cybersecurity news
    5. Digital Communication : The ability to communicate and collaborate with others using technology

    Digital communication involves an organization’s online communication efforts. Most organizations today use a wide range of online channels—from their website to mobile chat to blogs—to connect with current and prospective customers, employees, and other stakeholders.

    Importance of  Digital Communication 

    • Digital communication provides a seamless experience to student and teachers
    • Digital communication build better student engagement
    • Digital communication allows you to amplify your content and let it reach a huge number of people, across the world.
    • Digital communication can be used to retrieve analytics; ensures that you know what works and what doesn’t.

    Digital Footprint

    • A digital footprint is a trail of data you create while using the Internet. It includes the websites you visit, emails you send, and information you submit to online services.
    • It is important to consider what kind of trail you are leaving behind because it may also lead you to be more discerning in what you publish on social media websites. 
    • While you can often delete content from social media sites, once digital data has been shared online, there is no guarantee you will ever be able to remove it from the Internet.​​
      6. Digital Literacy : The ability to find, read, evaluate, synthesize, create, adapt, and share information, media, and technology

      Digital literacy

      • Digital literacy means having the skills you need to live, learn, and work in a society where communication and access to information is increasingly through digital technologies like internet platforms, social media, and mobile devices.
      • When communicating in virtual environments, the ability to clearly express your ideas, ask relevant questions, maintain respect, and build trust is just as important as when communicating in person.
      • You’ll also need practical skills in using technology to access, manage, manipulate and create information in an ethical and sustainable way. 

      Importance of Digital literacy

      • People who are digitally literate know how to find and consume digital content. They know how to create, communicate, and share digital content.
      • People who are building digital literacy skills understand the basics of Internet safety such as creating strong passwords, understanding and using privacy settings, and knowing what to share or not on social media. 
      • They understand the perils of cyberbullying and seek to stop current bullies and prevent others from cyberbullying.

      It’s a continual learning process because of constant new apps and updates, but your future self will thank you if you keep your digital life in order!

      Digital capabilities: The six elements

      • ICT proficiency (Functional skills)​
        • The use of ICT-based devices, applications, software and services
        • The use of ICT-based tools to carry out tasks effectively, productively, and with attention to quality
      • Information, data and media literacies (Critical use)
        • The capacity to find, evaluate, manage, curate, organise and share digital information
        • The capacity to collate, manage, access and use digital data
        • The capacity to critically receive and respond to messages in a range of digital media
      • Digital creation, problem solving and innovation (Creative production)
        • The capacity to design and/or create new digital artefacts and materials
        • The capacity to use digital evidence to solve problems and answer questions
        • The capacity to adopt and develop new practices with digital technology 
      • Digital communication, collaboration and participation (Participation)
        • The capacity to communicate effectively in digital media and spaces 
        • The capacity to participate in digital teams and working groups
        • The capacity to participate in, facilitate and build digital networks
      • Digital learning and development (Development)
        • The capacity to participate in and benefit from digital learning opportunities
        • The capacity to support and develop others in digitally-rich settings.
      • Digital identity and wellbeing (Self-actualising)
        • The capacity to develop and project a positive digital identity or identities and to manage digital reputation
        • The capacity to look after personal health, safety, relationships and work-life balance in digital settings

       Fore more information regarding teh digital capability​​

        7. Digital Rights : The ability to understand and uphold human rights and legal rights when using technology

        Personal Information

        Privacy is a fundamental right, serving as the foundation upon which many other human rights are built.Privacy enables us to create barriers and manage boundaries to protect ourselves from unwanted interference in our lives.

        Personal information refers to the recorded information about an identifiable individual.

        • Examples of personal information:
          • Biographical information or current living situation 
          • Looks, appearance and behavior 
          • Workplace data and information about education 
          • Private and subjective data 
          • Health, sickness and genetics

        How Personal Information is Used

        How your personal information is being used by companies:

        • To improve the customer experience
        • To refine a company’s marketing strategy
        • To transform the data into cash flow
        • To secure more data

        How Personal Information is Stored

        How your personal information is being stored by companies:

        • Databases
        • Data Management Firms
        • Cloud Storage

        How Personal Information is Processed

        Processing personal data refers to any operations performed on this personal data (whether those operations are automated or not). Common types of personal data processing include:

        • Collecting 
        • Recording
        • Organizing
        • Structuring
        • Storing
        • Modifying
        • Consulting
        • Using
        • Publishing
        • Combining
        • Erasing
        • Destroying data

        How Personal Information is Shared

        • Data has become one of the world’s most valuable resources thanks to the rapid digital transformation of global industries.
        • Data brokers are companies that collect information about you and then sell that data to others, usually companies or individuals. 
        • Some of these buyers will use your information to create online ads that are targeted specifically to you.

        How To Secure Personal Information 

        Steps to protect your personal information:

        •  Create strong passwords
        • Be mindful of what you share on social media
        • Watch out for links and attachments
        • Back-up your data
        • Keep all software on your PC up-to-date
        • Verify the web site you are on is safe
        • Once online, always online
        • Set Up Multifactor Authentication

        Why is it Important to keep your Personal Information Private & Secure

        • Prevent identity theft
        • Protect your financial information
        • Avoid being robbed
        • Protect your employability
        • Maintain your business’s reputation
        • Protect your freedom of thought
        • Defend yourself in legal proceedings
        • Protect yourself from threats that don’t exist yet

        Intellectual Property Right

        Intellectual property rights (IPR) are rights granted to creators and owners of works that are the result of human intellectual creativity.

        Why Intellectual Property is Important

        • Intellectual property protection is critical to fostering innovation. Without protection of ideas, businesses and individuals would not reap the full benefits of their inventions and would focus less on research and development.
        •  Similarly, artists would not be fully compensated for their creations and cultural vitality would suffer as a result.